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However, many teens do not report unhealthy behaviors because they are afraid to tell family and friends. A national survey found that ten percent of teens, 1 in 11 females and 1 in 15 males, had been the victims of physical dating violence within the past year. Approximately 29 percent of adolescents reported being verbally or psychologically abused within the previous year. About 1 in 9 female and 1 in 36 male high school students report having experienced sexual dating violence in the last year.
As for perpetration rates, there are currently no nationwide estimates for who does the abusing, and state estimates vary significantly. In South Carolina, for example, nearly 8 percent of adolescents reported being physically violent to a romantic partner. Interestingly, the rates of reported victimization versus perpetration in the state were similar for boys and girls.
However, when it comes to severe teen dating violence — including sexual and physical assault — girls were disproportionately the victims. Research on teen dating violence has found that girls and boys perpetrate the same frequency of physical aggression in romantic relationships. This finding was at odds with common perceptions and the experience of practitioners that work with these youth. Practitioners overwhelmingly report encountering female victims and hear that males are the primary perpetrators.
Because teen dating violence has only recently been recognized as a significant public health problem, the complex nature of this phenomenon is not fully understood. Although research on rates of perpetration and victimization exists, research that examines the problem from a longitudinal perspective and considers the dynamics of teen romantic relationships is lacking.
Consequently, those in the field have to rely on an adult framework to examine the problem of teen dating violence. However, we find that this adult framework does not take into account key differences between adolescent and adult romantic relationships. Thus, to help further the discussion, we offer in this article a gender-based analysis of teen dating violence with a developmental perspective. We look at what we know — and what we do not know — about who is the perpetrator and who is the victim in teen dating violence.
We also discuss how adult and adolescent romantic relationships differ in the hope that an examination of existing research will help us better understand the problem and move the field toward the creation of developmentally appropriate prevention programs and effective interventions for teenagers. In , Peggy Giordano and her colleagues at Bowling Green State University interviewed more than 1, seventh, ninth and 11th graders in Toledo, Ohio.
More than half of the girls in physically aggressive relationships said both they and their dating partner committed aggressive acts during the relationship. About a third of the girls said they were the sole perpetrators, and 13 percent reported that they were the sole victims.
Almost half of the boys in physically aggressive relationships reported mutual aggression, nearly half reported they were the sole victim, and 6 percent reported that they were the sole perpetrator. These findings are generally consistent with another study that looked at more than 1, Long Island, N. Twenty-eight percent of the girls said that they were the sole perpetrator; 5 percent said they were the sole victim.
These numbers were reversed for the boys: 5 percent said they were the sole perpetrator, 27 percent the sole victim. In a third study, teen couples were videotaped while performing a problem-solving task. Researchers later reviewed the tapes and identified acts of physical aggression that occurred between the boys and girls during the exercise. They found that 30 percent of all the participating couples demonstrated physical aggression by both partners. In 17 percent of the participating couples, only the girls perpetrated physical aggression, and in 4 percent, only the boys were perpetrators Capaldi et al.
The findings suggest that boys are less likely to be physically aggressive with a girl when someone else can observe their behavior. Figure Statistics on the perpetration of physical teen violence by gender. Considered together, the findings from these three studies reveal that frequently there is mutual physical aggression by girls and boys in romantic relationships. However, when it comes to motivations for using violence, and the consequences of being a victim of teen dating violence, the differences between the sexes are pronounced.
Although both boys and girls report that anger is the primary motivating factor for using violence, girls also commonly report self-defense as a motivating factor, and boys also commonly cite the need to exert control. Boys are also more likely to react with laughter when their partner is physically aggressive.
Girls experiencing teen dating violence are more likely than boys to suffer long-term negative behavioral and health consequences, including suicide attempts, depression, cigarette smoking, and marijuana use. Why do teenagers commit violence against each other in romantic relationships? We have already touched on the existing body of research on perpetration and victimization rates.
Nevertheless, there is not a great deal of research that uses a longitudinal perspective or that considers the dynamics of teen romantic relationships. As a result, practitioners and researchers in the field tend to apply an adult intimate partner violence framework when examining the problem of teen dating violence. A split currently exists, however, among experts in the adult intimate partner violence arena. Some experts hold that men and women are mutually combative and that this behavior should be seen as part of a larger pattern of family conflict.
These studies tend to show that women report perpetrating slightly more physical violence than men. Another group of experts holds that men generally perpetrate serious intimate partner violence against women. They contend that men in patriarchal societies use violence to exert and maintain power and control over women. Instead, supporters of this perspective use data on injuries and in-depth interviews with victims and perpetrators.
We believe, however, that applying either of these adult perspectives to adolescents is problematic. Although both views of adult intimate partner violence can help inform our understanding of teen dating violence, it is important to consider how adolescent romantic relationships differ from adult romantic relationships in several key areas.
One difference between adolescent and adult relationships is the absence of elements traditionally associated with greater male power in adult relationships. Adolescent girls are not typically dependent on romantic partners for financial stability, and they are less likely to have children to provide for and protect. In cases in which there was a power imbalance, they were more likely to say that the female had more power in the relationship.
Overall, the study found that the boys perceived that they had less power in the relationship than the girls did. Interestingly, males involved in relationships in which one or both partners reported physical aggression had a perception of less power than males in relationships without physical aggression. Meanwhile, the girls reported no perceived difference in power regardless of whether their relationships included physical aggression.
It is interesting to note that adults who perpetrate violence against family members often see themselves as powerless in their relationships. This dynamic has yet to be adequately explored among teen dating partners. A second key factor that distinguishes violence in adult relationships from violence in adolescent relationships is the lack of experience teens have in negotiating romantic relationships.
Inexperience in communicating and relating to a romantic partner may lead to the use of poor coping strategies, including verbal and physical aggression. A teen who has difficulty expressing himself or herself may turn to aggressive behaviors sometimes in play to show affection, frustration, or jealousy. A recent study in which boys and girls participated in focus groups on dating found that physical aggression sometimes stemmed from an inability to communicate feelings and a lack of constructive ways to deal with frustration.
Also the other partner is frustrated because they are tired of having to constantly reassure their partner. They report they are tired of always having to worry about meeting their partner needs and that their needs are constantly being pushed aside. This type of pattern is very common in relationships where there is domestic violence or a substance abuse problem. Also jealousy is a major issue in these relationships.
The person who is experiencing the emptiness is very sensitive to feeling rejected or abandoned. This is usually a result from childhood issues that have never been addressed. However, as an adult, if they sense these feelings in their relationship they tend to over react to them. The person may drink excessively to reduce their fears and men often result to verbal or physical abuse. Anything that will keep their partner in the relationship and continue to fill the empty space.
This tends to occur because as we grow up there is a great deal of pressure for people to be in relationships. You see this in children in first grade or kindergarten when adults jokingly ask children if they have a boyfriend or girlfriend. If a child doesn't they often feel there is something wrong with them.
I see this issue a lot with teenagers. I have teenagers who feel they are defective because they never had a girlfriend or boyfriend. This defective feeling increases significantly, if the teenager never has been on a date. They believe if they are going to be a "normal" teenager, they must at least be dating. Boys tend to believe they must be sexually active too.
I have had teenagers tell me they felt suicidal or were using drugs because they did not have a girlfriend or boyfriend. They are willing to risk their lives using drugs or believe they are better off dead, if they don't have a girlfriend or boyfriend. They are so tied up trying to live the stereotype, they can't believe that many teenagers do not have a girlfriend or boyfriend and do not date in High School. This pattern continues into adulthood. Many women feel defective if they are 30 years old and not married.
Men feel as if they are not men if they do not have a girlfriend. Both men and women often settle for anyone as long as they can say they are in a relationship. As children, we never learn how to love and care for ourselves. Ask someone if they would go out to dinner by themselves and most people look terrified by the idea. They have no idea what they would do and they are afraid about what other people with think. This is a sad state that we cannot love ourselves.
If we always need someone to reinforce we are lovable, we turn our power over to strangers. If someone says something nice about us we feel good, if they say something hurtful, we feel unworthy as a person. But, why should someone else determine our value? We should be the one who judges if we are lovable or not.
A relationship should add to our life like a bottle of wine adds to a meal. A relationship should not define us as a person. As a result of this problem, many couples end up divorcing because a partner is tired of having to reassure their spouse daily.
I have seen these divorces become very nasty and costly. So both parties are hurt even more and so are the children. They only people benefiting are the attorneys. We also have this same issue with teenagers. However, when they break up it tends to be more dramatic. A teenager may start to use drugs, develop an eating disorder, start cutting, become depressed and may attempt suicide. The behaviors are not uncommon after teenagers break up. We see this acting out behavior more in teenagers and children.
Teenagers and children are desperate to feel that they are loved by their parents especially. If they don't feel they are loved, there is a tendency to act out. Disney's movie, Frozen, has a segment where the trolls explain that if someone doesn't feel loved they may act out in pain or make poor decisions in an attempt to find love.
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